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Episode 3 – Stede Bonnet

Stede Bonnet is derided as the worst pirate that ever lived. He was totally ill suited to the job and should have just stayed on his plantation. Yet he survived a mutiny or two, raided up and down the Us Coast, got into several major fights with the navy, and received something of a mentorship from Blackbeard.

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    Full Transcripts:

    I’d like to begin by talking about retrospective diagnosis.

    It can have slightly different meanings, depending on the context it’s applied in, but with biographical and historical work, it refers to the practice of diagnosing historical figures with illnesses posthumously. So, for example, stating that Edgar Allen Poe had epilipsy.

    The practice isn’t without its flaws. The first and most obvious is that diagnosing a person with a given illness without them having been properly examined by a physician is inaccurate at best. The second is that a modern disease may not have necessarily existed when the person was alive, and that they may have suffered from a similar but distinctly different ailment that no longer exists in a modern context. For example, the disease historically referred to as Consumption is now known as Tuberculosis, but whether it was always the exact same disease as it is today is a matter of debate.

    Our contemporary definition of diseases is somewhat moderated by our privileged, modern, scientific and cultural understanding. With that in mind, you can see how retrospective diagnosis can become particularly tricky when we start talking about mental health problems, which have slightly porous, uncertain boundaries anyway.

    A good example is Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln is frequently cit ed as an historical example of Major Depressive Disorder. If you examine family history and his various diary entries, he definitely suffers from many clear depressive symptoms and fits many criteria of the condition. But labels like Major Depressive Disorder are precise clinical terms that shouldn’t really be used to label people that haven’t been examined by a trained therapist. Lincoln may have indeed been a very depressed man at stages of his life, but we can’t say for sure he was consistently like that on and off for many months at a time, or that his particular brand of melancholy is the same that we experience today.

    Having said that though, mental health issues are a part of being human. In order to understand people of the past, we need to understand their psychological issues, and as imprecise as our modern understanding, modern terminology, may be for that task, it’s still the best tool we’ve got. I don’t think there’s all that much wrong with ascribing modern medical terms to persons long deceased, as long its made clear that in this context, the definitions are much looser. We cannot say ‘Lincoln had Major Depressive Disorder’, but we can say ‘Lincoln had symptoms similar to those of Major Depressive Disorder’.

    On that note, I’d like to take a moment to talk about Bi-polar. Bi Polar disorder gets its name from the way that sufferers can experience radical mood changes. Depressive episodes and manic episodes. The depressive episodes are pretty self explanatory. Tired, sad, low self worth, etc etc.

    A manic episode, on the other hand, has you feeling great. You are full of energy, confident, adventurous, more outgoing, your mind is racing with a million different thoughts. That might sound great, but it’s actually a very bad thing. People experiencing mania often take terrible risks, they make serious, damaging decisions about their personal lives, they can become really promiscuous, go on booze fueled benders. In extreme cases, there are sometimes full blown psychotic symptoms, like believing you are talking to god. Mania, to a degree, means losing touch with reality.

    A good celebrity example is Kanye West. West was diagnosed with the disorder in 2018, and it goes a long to explaining some of his odd, extraverted behaviour over the years. Think about his outburst at the Grammys where he took the mic off Taylor Swift on live tv.

    Some people with bipolar go much further than that. Some join a cult. Some go on huge drug bings, and some, some completely destroy their lives.

    Stede (and that’s SteDe with a DEE not a VEE), was born in Barbados in 1688 into a reasonably wealthy, land owning family. They had a sugar plantation of some 400 acres near Bridgetown, with nearly 100 slaves and a number of paid servants. Stede was well educated in the liberal arts, and as the only son, he was groomed to be the gentlemanly head of the household.

    He was a bookish kid, and not particularly outgoing. His father passed away when he was just 6 years old, and though I can’t find much on his mother, most sources assume she must have passed away as well, as Stede inherited the plantation.

    Apart from being an orphan, he led a pretty ordinary, peaceful life. He was a member of his local militia, and received the rank of major, but that was a peacekeeping force in case of slave revolts, and none of the sources I’ve read suggest he ever actually saw any sort of policing or combat duties.The rank was purely a title given to an upper class man.

    He was married to a Mary Allemby at age 21, and had 4 kids. He was settling in for a nice, peaceful life as a father and plantation owner, when he was suddenly overcome with the need to make a radical change in his life. There’s no firm answer as to what brought this on, Stede didn’t record his own thoughts and feelings in a diary, and so we can only really guess as to his motivations. One rather sexist source suggests he was unhappy in his marriage because his wife was a bit naggy, another possibility is the death of his eldest child made him give up on his family life. But I don’t think that’s it, because other sources say he was always slightly unstable, and I that’s why I think it’s probable that Stede suffered something like a severe manic episode.

    Whatever it was, at age 29, Stede made a very bizarre, very damaging, largely irreversible life choice.

    Stede, decided to become a pirate.

    Stede took money from his plantation and ordered the construction of a sloop, which is a medium sized ocean going sailing ship. They weren’t very big or heavily armed, but they were pretty quick and carried a decent load, so pirates and privateers liked them. His was a 60 tonner. He stuck 6-10 guns on it and named it The Revenge.

    It’s very hard to get an accurate idea of what things would have cost back then, relative to our everyday understanding of cost and value. There’s inflation, of course, but sometimes entire currencies no longer exist, and there’s a million variables that go into the cost of building things anyway, so don’t take the numbers here as gospel. But one source I’ve got says that a replica 80 ton sloop that was built in 2009 cost 3.7 million USD. Another source says that ship building at this time would have run about 20 pounds per ton. This being a 60 ton ship, that’d be 1200 pounds, thanks. The average wage for a labourer in England, was 17 pounds. So Stede may have spent 60 times the average annual wage on his mid life crisis project. One source says that he took out a 1700 pound loan in early 1717, so 12-1400 pounds for the boat and provisions, another 300 to pay his crew, that sounds about right to me. Whichever numbers are right, you can see it’s bloody expensive no matter which way you cut it.

    This was not the way one went about acquiring a pirate ship. Usually, you would capture a ship in some way and convert it into a pirate vessel. It’s not even the ideal way to acquire a ship for a guy like Stede – remember, he had it built from scratch. Used ships went for auction all the time, and it was common practice to repurpose freighters into pirate vessels.

    On top of his lack of combat experience, Stede had no knowledge about sailing. None. Beyond perhaps being a passenger on a ship from time to time, although I’ve got no information that he had ever left Barbados.

    For crew, he found himself a talented firstmate and quartermaster, and between 70 and 120 additional men. Sources vary. They loaded the ship up with food, weapons, and a Stede’s large personal library which he positively could not leave home without.

    He paid them all a standard monthly salary, as a gentleman like he was accustomed. Except, that wasn’t how pirate vessels worked. Pirates worked for a percentage of the takings, essentially working on a shared commission basis. They would usually have carefully laid out charters on their vessels, detailing rules and expectations of each crew member, as well as their rates of pay – in other words, how to fairly divide the stolen goods. The fact that Stede was able and willing to pay guys an ongoing upfront salary before they’d even taken a ship was a bit of a red flag to most of the crew that maybe this guy wasn’t all that experienced.

    In the spring of 1717, he set out westward from Barbados, after dark so as not to be challenged. Oddly, the royal navy seems to have had a good idea he was leaving, but they just let him go anyway, perhaps because they, like his crew, didn’t take him very seriously. He left behind a very confused wife and 3 children under the age of 4.

    The Revenge made for North America (Not the US, remember this is 60 years before the revolution happened). Charleston, South Carolina was a busy British colony that was quite vulnerable to pirate attack. It was an awkward port to get into, so freighters could be scoped and picked off easily, and if you did need to run from a navy ship, the swampy coastline had lots of little inlets that a smallish ship like a sloop could slip into to. There are lots of different types of sailing ships by the way, but to keep things simple, I’m just going to call them a freighters.

    Stede’s first pirate raid goes smoothly enough; they easily capture a freighter from Boston. There was nothing on board though, so they held the ships crew to prevent them from talking, and waited on another vessel. One came a few hours later, and once again they captured it easily. It had good cargo to steal, but there were two problems: One, The Revenge was still full from when they left port, and Two, the captain of the other ship was from Barbados and recognized Bonnet. Which must have been awkward.

    They took control of both freighters and sailed up the coast. There, they took what supplies they could resell, burned one of the ships, and crippled the other so that the freighter crews could get home, but not quickly enough to warn Charleston about The Revenge.

    From there, they headed south to Florida, where Bonnet made his first really bad mistake. He decided to attack a Spanish Man O’ War, which is a serious naval vessel. The Revenge is a 20 metre Sloop with maybe 10 guns. A Man O’ War is more like 60 meters with 100 guns. The engagement did not go well.

    40 of Bonnet’s pirates were killed and the upper decks of the ship were shot to hell. They manage to escape, just, but Bonnet was badly woundedl. The remainder of his crew decided to take The Revenge to the port of Nassau.

    Nassau on the island of New Providence, was just another caribbean port until 1696, when the privateer Henry Every brought a ship loaded with gold and ivory into dock. He bribed the governor to let him stay, which was the thin end of the wedge for ongoing corruption and criminal activity. Before long, Nassau became a safe haven where pirates could operate freely (for a small fee). Eventually the pirates got so powerful, that they effectively took over the island. It became known as the pirate republic, and had a its own rules and regulations drawn up in a full blow pirate code.

    When The Revenge arrived, the pirates agreed to tend to Bonnets wounds and give him sanctuary, but not on the island. Instead, they gave command of his ship to another pirate, and Stede was to stay holed up in the captain’s quarters until he was healed. Stede couldn’t really protest. Not only was he crippled physically, but his remaining crew weren’t far off mutiny.

    The other pirates name was Blackbeard.

    Blackbeard, or Edward Teach, which might may not have been his real name either, was a real person who really did operate very successfully in the Caribbean. He’s not just a fictional character. He was a tall, thin, broad shouldered guy with a sense for the theatric. He dressed in colourful, expensive clothes, had a great big dreadlocked beard and moustache, wore knee high leather boots, and liked to put slow burning matches into his beard and hair to make it look like he was literally smouldering. He understood that the best way to board a ship and keep its crew compliant was to scare them into obeying you, so the more outlandish he could make himself look, the more piratey he could be, the better. You didn’t want to have to start a fight. Gunpowder and men are expensive, and blowing the enemy ship apart would just mean less stuff to steal.

    There’s not a lot known about his early life, largely because of the psuedonyms he used, but he was an able fighter and talented sea man, so it’s reasonably likely he’d served in the english navy at some point.

    Blackbeard repaired The Revenge, improved the guns, and set out north with 150 men aboard. They made for Philadelphia, with the intention of stalking the harbour mouth. The newly fitted out Revenge was a major upgrade on his previous ship. Bonnett stayed in his cabin, and would emerge only in the mornings wearing a lovely silk dressing gown and whatever book he was reading at the time.Blackbeard duly treated Bonnet as a guest, and was happy to entertain Bonnett and allow him to heal, so the pair were friendly with one another. They captured a freighter loaded with wine, and then plundered a passenger ship

    For the next month, Blackbeard prowled the mid atlantic coast raiding between 15 and 20 merchant vessels. In many cases, when he couldn’t take on anymore cargo, he simply hurled goods overboard. He had a grudge against the English empire and was happy to do as much damage to it as he could. Despite his reputation in contemporary fiction as something of a monster, Blackbeard wasn’t really that bad of a guy. As near as we can tell, until his final, fateful engagement with the navy, there’s no record of him actually killing anyone, which made him a far greater humanitarian than many of the slave trading or naval vessels roaming the Atlantic at the time. Life at sea could be terribly brutal. People were routinely murdered for minor crimes, and if food ran low, lower ranking crew members and slaves were often tossed overboard. Blackbeard treated everyone, including his captives, rather fairly, considering he was holding them up at gunpoint and stealing all their shit. He was honestly about as good a captain as you would be likely to serve under.

    Blackbeard abandoned the east atlantic seaboard when it became clear it was no longer safe. The Royal Navy, tiring of pirate activity, started posting frigates at major seaports, and in response The Revenge decamped and headed back to the Caribbean. They left with a hull filled with precious metals, wine, silks, and a second, smaller ship.

    On return to the south, they used that second ship to capture a 3rd, much, much larger vessel. A 250 tonne slave freighter called La Concorde. By this time, Stede had recovered, and much to the crew of The Revenge’s dismay, Blackbeard gave Stede back his ship! Blackbeard shifted over to the much larger La Concorde, and needed a captain on the second ship anyway, so why not? He renamed his new ship the Queen Anne’s Revenge.

    So Stede has now gone from bored frumpy plantation owner, to second in command of a small pirate fleet, all without really doing much of anything to warrant it.

    They sail to Guadalupe, steal a french freighter loaded with sugar, and then burn down half the town to cover their escape.

    A few days later, they encountered a large English freighter. The fleet prepared to attack, but before they could, the ships captain boarded a long boat and paddled over to the The Revenge, mistaking Stede Bonnet for a nobleman (which is fair enough, because he kinda was one), the ships captain and he had a friendly chat, before Stede ordered him aboard The Revenge at gunpoint. There, he fed them a nice meal with some decent wine and questioned them for a few hours about naval power in the area. Their own ship, the freighter, had figured out what was up and quickly fled the scene.The captured men enjoyed another nice meal on the Queen Anne’s Revenge and were released a few weeks later.

    Bonnet was actually getting better at pirating. A little bit better. He used the same ruse again a few weeks later, posing as a gentlemanly trader to lure aboard a captain, and gained valuable information about docked english freighters in a nearby harbour. He was going to burn the man’s ship, but instead opted to just keep him hostage until it was too late for him to warn anyone.

    They sailed into Sandy Point harbor, met almost no resistance, stole a pile of gold, silver, and sugar, and then set a number of ships on fire, including the captured French sugar ship, which they no longer had sufficient men to properly crew. Blackbeard also scored a number of new guns, and the Queen Anne’s Revenge now had 28 cannons, total. The next week, they captured two more small freighters bringing her to 36 guns. The little fleet was now a real threat to British naval forces.

    Off Puerto Rico, they raided yet another freighter and stole weapons and livestock, and the crew gave them some very important information. King George of England had issued a pardon for all pirates that surrendered during an upcoming amnesty period. After that, a fleet was to be sent to clean up the Caribbean, to retake the colony of Nassau and destroy all pirate vessels.

    They ignored the news and sailed straight on to Spanish territory, down deep in the gulf of mexico. They spent the next two months plundering away, as well as upgrading their ships. By Febuary of 1718, their little fleet consisted of 4 sloops and the Queen Anne’s Revenge, which by now had a honking great 42 guns. By March, the pair split up to cover more ground, and Stede took The Revenge southwards.

    There, Stede decided to attack a huge, well armed freighter. It was 400 tonnes which was 5-6 times the size of Stedes little sloop. The two ships peppered each other with cannon fire for several hours, neither really doing any damage, and The Revenge had to retreat into port to undergo repairs. They came into the port of Turneffe, where Blackbeard’s fleet was also anchorered. Bonnet’s crew went aboard the Queen Anne’s Revenge, without Bonnet’s knowledge, and straight up begged Blackbeard to replace Bonnet with one of his officers. He had no idea what he was doing and was putting them in danger.

    Blackbeard invited Bonnett aboard the Queen Anne, and told him that he should put his feet up, and that h should “live easy, at his pleasure, in such a ship as [this], where he would not be obliged to perform the necessary duties of a sea voyage.”

    Most contemporary histories portray this as Blackbeard stealing Bonnet’s ship and making him his prisoner, but on closer reading that hardly seems fair. For one thing, pirate vessels were pretty democratic. Captains ruled with the consent and consultation of their crews, unlike the standard military hierarchy one would find on a naval vessel, where captains were much more likely to be cruel and autocratic. There are many occasions in the histories I’m reading where the pirates sit down, thrash out their differences in meaningful, respectful dialogue, and then take a vote. As it was, Bonnet was a shitty captain, he was endangering the lives of the men under his command, but most importantly he had lost the consent of the governed. It should be noted that not everyone consented to this action – Stede had supporters among the pirates that felt that taking his ship was not the done thing.

    In my research, I got the impression Stede had in his head a popular conception of piracy. Hohoho and a bottle of rum, ramshackle ships held together by a colourful gangs of thieves and killers that were drunk all the time and fought among themselves. The reality was pretty different. Crews were professional sailors, and in order to survive at sea, you needed to work together. Many pirates weren’t in the game for the money, and had strong political motivations. Many pirates were Scots, and were opposed to King George, believing that James Sturt was the rightful heir to the throne of England. Pirates would often deliberately target english shipping to damage the English economy. Pirate captains derived their authority from the consent of the crew, which would often vote on important decisions. This is a far cry from the autocratic and often cruel behaviour of many naval and merchant ship commanders. Far from the barbarous depictions of tyrannical pirate captains forcing people to walk the plank, Caribbean pirates, at least in this period, were actually pretty well behaved.

    Stede moped about in his cabin for the last several months, free to roam the ship but not given any authority. He was moaning loudly about retiring to Spain, where he wouldn’t be recognized. Blackbeard was raiding the Carolinas, had run out of rum, had quelled an insurrection, and blockaded Charlestown. He was getting sick of his current circumstances, and decided to that he wanted to keep his crews share of the booty. So he hatched a plan to get out of paying his crew.

    First, he ran his flagship, the Queen Anne’s Revenge, aground on a sandbar. Giving up your most powerful vessel and a huge asset all at once seems like a terrible plan for getting rich to me, but that was his play. Second, he gave back control of The Revenge to Stede Bonnet. Bonnet took a little bit and 8 men, and headed for land. Tired of a pirate’s life, he was looking for the governor to arrange a king’s pardon.

    The moment he left, half the pirates took the other half prisoner and dumped them on a nearby island, and then took off with the fleets takings.

    Now, you would expect that this must have been millions of dollars in pirate gold, pieces of art, silver, rum, rare silks…..nope. All their efforts had come to a relatively measly 2500 pounds, which is roughly half a million US bucks today. Split at least 80 ways. These guys are not exactly balling out of control here.

    Bonnet got his pardon, and returned to the Revenge, where he was told about Blackbeards betrayal. He picked up the remaining pirates and headed south, looking for Blackbeard. But Blackbeard wasn’t there, he had headed inland to try and find the governor as well. He and his hundred pirate followers also took the Kings pardon, and cleaned out their legal record.

    Bonnet spent a months trying to find Blackbeard. He patrolled the coast, took his sloop up river, and could find no trace of his old mentor. He and his crew decided to go off and become privateers instead. The difference between a Pirate and a Privateer? A pirate attacked anyone and didn’t have the backing of any sovereign state. A privateer was a mercenary vessel sanctioned by one state that was at war with another state. So, if say, the English were at war with the Spanish, the English might legally sanction Privateers to attack Spanish trade vessels. Stede Bonnet would be a highly selective pirate in service of the crown.

    Sadly, that did not come to pass. Once out to sea, the crew realized, that Stede hadn’t adequetely stocked up on food for the journey, and they voted to raid the next ship they came across to restock. Stede voted against the raid, but he was outvoted by a crew that respected the first mate far more than he. This action immediately violated his pardon, and he was a wanted pirate once more.

    They whole crew collectively said fuck it, and started raiding ships again. Bonnet tried claiming his name was Captain Edwards, as he had when he started his piratey career, but he was kinda famous by now and most people saw through right through it. He also tried paying token sums to the raided ships so he could later claim to be a merchant, but they ran out of useless shit to give away pretty quickly, and so gave up on that fig leaf of legality as well. Bonnet had no control over his own ship.

    They took refuge at Cape Fear, North Carolina, to refit and wait out the Hurricane season. Some of the men, still clinging to their pardon, tried to flee, but there was nowhere to go, and had to return to the ship and beg the first mate, Tucker, who was basically in charge now, to let them back in.

    They had a bigger problem than a worn out ship and a divided crew. The American colonies had finally gotten their own act together and sent a small naval detachment of their own to deal with pirates in their waters. They caught Bonnet and his men hold up in an inlet at Cape Fear on September 27, 1718.

    The pirates would have been caught napping, but Colonel Rhett, the head of the party, ran his ship aground at the head of the inlet. The pirates used their chance to escape. At low tide, they rose anchor, set their sails and took off to the open ocean….and ran aground on a short distance from Colonel Rhett’s ship. The 3rd ship, the Sea Nymph, wheeled around to bombard the stranded pirates……but it ran aground on yet another sandbar.

    So the three ships are sitting in low water, totally stranded. They can’t turn their main guns to face one another, and would have to wait at least 6 hours before the tide lifted enough to float them again.

    The two groups started shooting at each other with muskets. For 5 long hours to the groups peppered each other with shot. 14 South Carolinans and 9 Pirates were killed in the exchange. No word on how well Bonnet acquitted himself, but despite being a major in his militia, I somehow doubt he played a major role.

    When the tide began to rise, a ship lifted off the sandbar……it was Colonel Rhett’s. Now facing the full power of Rhett’s cannons, the pirates wisely decided to surrender.

    He was taken to Charleston for trial. There, there was a bit of division as to exactly what to do with him. A lot of pardoned pirates now lived in Charlston, and to the poor, pirates were heroes. Nobody liked the land owning classes and it was the pirates that had been doing so much damage to them. They were, like a lot of bank robbers and highway men that came both before and after them, folks heroes.

    Charlston didn’t even have the proper resources for holding serious criminals. It was only a small colonial outpost, and didn’t even have a jail. Bonnet was just kept at the Marshall’s house, the governor believing that a gentlemanly soul like Bonnet would respect convention and treat his incarceration honorably.

    Nope. He escaped within a week and the Marshall got fired. He and another prisoner stole a canoe, and they somehow convinced Bonnets slaves (the one’s he’d captured during his raids) to help them paddle away.

    I really have to an episode on african slaves, it seems crazy to me that they would still help him when they were under 0 obligation to do so.

    In the wake of Bonnet’s escape, there was a small riot, in which gangs of smugglers and pardoned pirates threatened to burn down Charleston. They demanded Bonnet’s pirates be freed and pardoned. In what you could only describe as a bold move in response, the Carolina governor did the exact opposite. He expedited the trials of his men, found 29 of 33 guilty, and hung 22 of them a couple of days later.

    Bonnets grand plan was to paddle all the way to North Carolina. That’s about 200 kilometers. With no food, provisions, and little knowledge of the surrounding coastline. He ran headfirst into a storm and was blown 4 miles south of his starting destination, at which point William Rhett caught up to him again. Another gunfight broke out, and one of the South Carolina militamen was killed, and a few of those incredibly loyal slaves got injured.

    Bonnett was dragged back to Charlston for the second time in as many weeks. This time, he was imprisoned at the fort. He was charged with just two acts of piracy, despite him having escaped prisons and caused two major gun battles that killed scores of men. He conducted his own defense, was swiftly found guilty, and sentenced to death. He wailed loudly in the dock at the sentence, and wrote letters to the governor pleading for clemency. “Look upon me with bowels of pity and compassion” he wrote. The governor was almost swayed by Bonnet’s appeals. It was quite apparent to him that Bonnet wasn’t fully sound of mind. He gave him 7 stays of execution, and the people of Charlston began to wonder if the sentence would actually be carried out.

    In the end, the governor decided that he really needed to discourage piracy. Bonnet was hung by the neck on December 10, 1718. He had been pirating a little over 18 months.

    It would be a little silly of us to criticize him for failing to fend off the royal navy. The allegedly fearsome Blackbeard (who, as I pointed out, was actually a pretty humane guy for an 18th century mariner), didn’t fare much better. He returned to piracy in secret, bribing local officials to allow him to operate. But the navy figured out the scheme, and sent 100 odd men after him. In a vicious battle in which 30 or more men were lost, Blackbeard was killed in a swordfight.

    Clearly, Stede had done better than he should have. In fact, he probably did better than any of us would have been if we had decided to drop everything and go pirating. To go from being a quote unquote ‘portly’ plantation owner to killing enemy sailors in a pirate gun battle in 18 months is actually semi impressive.

    As fun as this odd little story is though, let’s not walk away from the fact that Stede was probably, by the modern definition, quote mentally ill. He blew up his entire life on a whim, and in the wake of that decision, he left burned ships, burned towns, scores of men killed by his incompetence, 3 little kids that wouldn’t have a father, and his own death at the hands of the Carolina authorities.

    So if, after a period of feeling a bit down, you see a friend come out the other side with a sense of clarity, a sense of urgency, a desire to make drastic changes in their life, maybe just sit them down, tell them to breathe, and recount this story. You may well be saving them from going somewhere they never wanted.

    I used two secondary and one primary source for this episode. The Republic of Pirates by Colin Woodward, and Pirates, Privateers, Rebel Raiders of the Carolina Coast by Lindsay Buterl, and The Trials of Major Stede Bonnet and other Pirates, which is an 18th century primary document detailing his trial. You can find it online pretty easily, the library of congress has scanned the original for us all to enjoy.

    If you want to know more on Caribbean piracy, there are loads of exhaustive books out there on the subject, including the two I mentioned above, and there’s a full blown pirate podcast called The Pirate History podcast that goes through the subject in wonderful detail. Thanks for listening.

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